STANDARDS in e-learning     (

CORDRA stands for Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/Resolution Architecture. It is a model of how to enable the next step in the evolution of e-learning, namely, how to solve the problem of finding and reusing learning content. Its goal is to develop a model for how to do this, using existing technology from the worlds of learning content management and delivery, content repositories, and digital libraries. CORDRA aims to identify and specify (not develop) appropriate technologies and existing interoperability standards that can be combined into a reference model that will enable learning content to be found, retrieved and re-used.


The IMS Question & Test Interoperability (QTI) specification describes a data model for the representation of question (assessmentItem) and test (assessmentTest) data and their corresponding results reports. Therefore, the specification enables the exchange of this item, test and results data between authoring tools, item banks, test constructional tools, learning systems and assessment delivery systems. The data model is described abstractly, using [UML] to facilitate binding to a wide range of data-modelling tools and programming languages, however, for interchange between systems a binding is provided to the industry standard eXtensible Markup Language [XML] and use of this binding is strongly recommended.

Some examples of the application of eLearning standards

Key eLearning standards

Standards are important because they allow us to harmonise items and systems for inter operability. Without standards we would waste a lot of time and money developing products and services that addressed a particluar rather than general need. In eLearning we need standards to protect our investments and enable widespread use.

Overview of eLearning standards